It follows that when I write Clojure code, I want nice tooling to help me manage code quality, namespace management, and out-of-date dependencies. What tools do I use on a day-to-day basis for this? In this post, I’ll show 5 tools that I use in my workflow every day on Clojure projects, and also provide some other tools for further exploration. Most of these tools exist as plugins to the excellent Leiningen tool for Clojure.
lein deps :tree
In the past,
lein deps was a command that downloaded the correct versions of your project’s dependencies. Running
lein deps is no longer necessary, as each lein command now checks for dependencies before executing. But
deps provides an interesting variant for our uses:
lein deps :tree.
:tree keyword at the end instructs lein to print out your project’s dependencies as a tree. This itself is a good visualization, but not what we’re looking for. The tree command will first print out any dependencies-of-dependencies which have conflicts with other dependencies. For example, here’s what
lein deps :tree says for one of my projects:
As you can see, the tool suggests dependencies that request conflicting versions, and how we can modify our
project.clj file to resolve those conflicting versions by excluding one or the other. This isn’t always very useful, but when you run into issues because two different Clojure libraries require two wildly different
joda-time versions (a situation I have run into before), it will be good to know what dependencies are causing that issue and how you might go about resolving it.
Note that this functionality disappeared in Leiningen 2.4.3 but is back in 2.5.0, so make sure you run
This plugin to
lein exists simply to check your project for outdated dependencies. Without lein-ancient, I’d be unable to keep up with some of the faster-moving libraries in the Java and Clojure world.
After adding ancient to your
~/.lein/profiles.clj, running the
lein ancient command yields output on the same project as before:
Whoops! Looks like I haven’t been keeping up to date with my dependencies.
lein ancient makes checking for new dependency versions easy. Further, thanks to the ubiquity of semantic versioning in Clojure projects, it is usually quite safe to bump the minor versions (0.0.x) of dependencies.
You can also use lein-ancient to find outdated lein plugins in your
~/.lein/profiles.clj file. Just run it with the
As we gain experience and confidence in a programming language, we begin to talk about whether we’re writing idiomatic code. I’d argue that idiomatic code is code that accomplishes a goal with proper use of language features, in a way that other developers familiar with that language would understand. A simpler way to say it might be: idiomatic code uses the community-accepted best practices of how to do something.
Clojure’s design seeks to solve some problems found in older Lisps, as well as add in niceties like complementary predicate functions. A good example of these convenient complementary functions are
if-not. Clojure also contains several cases of simplification for common usage. For example, when you don’t need an else clause on an
if, you can use the
Wouldn’t it be great if there was someone who was well-versed in Clojure idioms pairing with you and offering suggestions? That’s exactly what kibit does.
Running against a project I’d set up to contain some smells,
lein kibit found:
These kinds of small improvements are all over our Clojure projects. They’re not show-stopper bugs, but they’re small places for improvement.
Kibit’s suggestions are almost always logically equivalent to the original code. Still, I always do some smoke-testing to ensure the code still works after using Kibit’s suggestion, and it generally does. Problems I frequently fix with Kibit are replacing
if statements with the
when macro, as well as places where the code checks for empty seqs, or that I can simplify nil checks.
You can point lein kibit at a specific namespace by appending the path, like this:
lein kibit src/foo/bar.clj
Kibit catches many cases where there is a more-idiomatic way to express what you are trying to do. I recommend running it often. In fact, it’s possible to use kibit in your emacs buffers if you want it to be that much more convenient and real-time.
For linting Clojure code, there’s Eastwood. It is similar in functionality to Kibit, bit will catch different issues than Kibit. Built on two interesting Clojure projects: tools.analyzer and tools.analyzer.jvm, Eastwood does a powerful examination of your code inside the JVM. It is worth highlighting that since Eastwood loads your code to analyze it, it might trigger any side effects that happen when your code loads: writing files, modifying databases, etc. Note that it only loads the code; it does not execute it.
eastwood to your lein
profiles.clj, simply run:
lein eastwood and you will see output like:
That’s a lot of problems for a simple file! Notice how one mistake got caught for two reasons: A misplaced docstring (placed after the arguments vector) becomes just a string in the function body that will be thrown away.
Another nice catch that Eastwood provides is detecting the redefinition of the var
qux in the file.
But Eastwood covers a lot more cases than just vars being def’d more than once. See the full list to find out what else it does. There’s a few linters that are disabled by default, but they might make sense to enable for your project.
Frequently running lint tools can help prevent subtle problems that come from code that looks correct but contains some small error. Eastwood is less concerned with style than tools like JSHint are, but we have other tools that cover stylistic concerns.
This is a relative newcomer to my own tool set. lein bikeshed has features related to the low-hanging fruit in our Clojure code: lines longer than 80 characters, blank lines at ends of files, and more. It will also tell you what percentage of functions have docstrings. Like other tools mentioned here, it is a lein plugin that you add to your
A run of
lein bikeshed on its own source (which purposefully includes some code designed to fail) looks like this:
Bikeshed might give a lot of output for your existing projects, but the warnings are worth investigating and addressing. You can always silence the long-lines warning if it doesn’t matter to you with the
-m command line argument.
Tying it all together with a Lein alias
Wouldn’t it be great to run all these tools frequently, so that you can check for as many problems as possible? Well, you can, with a lein alias. (The lein wiki documents aliases in the lein sample.project.clj.)
~/.lein/profiles.clj, inside your
:user map, add the line:
Now, when you want to run all these tools at once on a project, you simply invoke
lein omni. I use this alias on all my Clojure(Script) projects. I have grown accustomed to seeing the kinds of output that a clean Clojure project will have.
It’s worth noting that I don’t run Eastwood unless it is necessary for the project. When it is necessary, I override the alias in the project’s
project.clj to run Eastwood as well.
This command can take some time to complete, but with an alias we’re only spinning up lein once.
And a bash alias
The output of
lein omni can be long, which can either result in a lot of scrolling or neglecting to run the command due to the inconvenience. To help manage the length of the output, I’ve created a bash alias that runs the plugins and pipes them to less.
My personal bash alias also runs midje at the end. You can choose whether to run the tests for your own alias. That’s just my personal preference.
Note that just like running the lein alias above, this may take a bit of time. Since we’re piping it to
less, it might take awhile before
less receives output. While it is still running, output will periodically show up at the bottom of the
less buffer. You can use both Emac’s and vim’s movement commands in
less to advance the buffer. I find
less to be more manageable for scrolling through output than switching to
tmux’s history scrolling mode.
Managing your namespaces: lein slamhound
Namespace management often becomes an issue on nontrivial Clojure projects. Actively developing a project means managing the functions we pull in from other namespaces and from libraries. These require statements can often get out of date. Often, they’re either missing namespaces that are needed, or containing requirements for old functions that are no longer used in the current code.
slamhound is a tool that can help to manage dependencies in your namespaces. It knows how to require and import Clojure and Java dependencies, and can remove stale requires that are no longer necessary. Slamhound can often fix missing requires for functions that it can resolve.
Note: slamhound rewrites the namespace macros in your project’s .clj files! I recommend only running it on code that’s committed to git (or whatever you use as a VCS) so that you can review and rollback any changes it makes.
The most basic way to use slamhound is to add it to your
~/.lein/profiles.clj as a dependency. Then add this alias:
Now you can use slamhound on a project by running
lein slamhound in the project’s directory. There’s also REPL and Emacs support, which you can learn more about in the slamhound README.
Measuring test coverage with cloverage
It is often claimed that less unit testing is necessary in Clojure because Clojure is functional and makes use of immutable data structures. And it is true that with functional programming, most tests are simple: given some input, the output should be a certain value.
Some would even argue that Clojure functions should be well-factored enough into simple functions that the behavior of the function is apparent and requires no tests. Still others maintain that developing in the REPL is as good as writing unit tests, since functions are constantly evaluated and integrated with this style of development.
That said, there’s still mutable Java code to interop with, there’s still the necessary evil of functions with side effects, and we might want to check the structure of the data we’re producing in our functions rather than the value of it. For all those reasons and to check that I don’t introduce regressions, I tend to write unit tests in Clojure.
This blog post isn’t a platform to argue for or against testing Clojure. But when you do test, you may wonder how to tell how much test coverage your test suite has. How do we know at a glance what percentage of our namespaces is being tested? And how do we find lines that are never being exercised in our tests? After all, we can’t improve what we don’t measure.
That’s where cloverage comes in. Cloverage is another lein plugin, so it gets added to
~/.lein/profiles.clj like the others. Then run
lein cloverage in your project; it will run the test suite and generate a coverage report.
The coverage report appears in
target/coverage as HTML files, broken down by namespace.
You can still use Cloverage even if you don’t use
clojure.test. I use midje in most of my tests. To use Cloverage in those situations, wrap your tests in a
deftest has a hyphenated Clojure keyword as its identifier, and Midje facts have a string as an identifier, I’ve come to use the
deftest to group related tests together. Usually this means naming the group of tests after the function I’m testing. Then I name Midje facts after the situation that the fact exercises. This makes sense to me because it fits well with the hierarchy of rspec unit tests in Ruby.
Here’s an example of using this approach:
Cloverage also outputs a
coverage.txt file that might be useful for use with services like Coveralls. I haven’t used this, so I can’t comment on its usefulness.
If you’re using speclj for your tests, you might run into some issues getting Cloverage to play nice. I don’t use speclj often, so when I couldn’t get it to work with Cloverage, I didn’t pursue the issue.
In this post, I covered 5 tools to add to your workflow all the time, and some others that might be useful in certain cases. I’m sure there’s more tools out there that are useful that I don’t know about, and I’d love to hear about them.
I’m also thinking about writing some posts about other development tools that I use, particularly how I use midje to test, and how you can benchmark code with perforate. If you’re interested in those topics, get in touch and let me know.
Have fun and enjoy your cleaner codebase with these tools in your tool belt!
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